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Table 5 Total cost and share of direct cost, indirect cost and intangible cost

From: The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review

Country/ Study Year Cost as % GDP (GNP)+ Total cost in study year (Billion)a Direct cost (%) Indirect cost (%) Intangible cost (%)
Australia 1988 [6] N.I. AUS$4.00 48% 31% 21%
Australia 1992 [6] N.I. AUS$4.5 45% 33% 21%
Australia 1998-9 [7] 1.98b AUS$7.56 50% 23% 27%
Canada 1992 [18] 1.09 CAN$7.52 45% 55% N.A.
Canada 2002 [15] 1.1-2.7c CAN$14.55 51% 49% N.A.
Ontario 1992 [20] 1.02d US$2.26 44% 56% N.A.
England and Wales 2001/2 [4] N.I. £18.52 38% 37% 25%
Finland 1990 [26] (3.5) FMK 17.31 19% 81% N.A.
France 1997 [9] 1.42 FF 115.42 50% 50% N.A.
Germany 2002 [12] 0.93-1.16e Euro 19.56 - 24.40e 35%f 65%f N.A.
Japan 1987 [14] (1.9) ¥6,637.60 20% 80% N.A.
The Netherlands 2001 [13] N.I. EUR 2.58 52% 48% N.A.
New Zealand 1991 [8] (1.5-5.7)g NZ$1.04-3.98 15-33% 67-85% N.A.
Portugal 1995 [24] 0.6 Euro 0.43 25% 75% N.A.
Scotland 2001/2 [19] N.I. £1.07 42% 58% N.A.
Sweden 2002 [11] 0.9-1.3e SEK 20.33-29.38e 37%-49%e 51%-63%e 0%h
South Korea 2000 [5] 2.86 WON 14,935.2 28% 72% N.A.
Thailand 2006 [25] 1.99 Baht 156.11 4% 96% N.A.
US 1985 [17] 1.66 US$70.34 22% 78% N.A.
US 1990 [16] N.I. US$98.62 23% 77% N.A.
US 1992 [23] N.I. US$148.02 28% 72% N.A.
US 1998 [10] N.I. US$184.64 27% 73% N.A.
  1. NI: Not indicated, NA: Not applicable, a: may not equal the cost quoted in the original study due to round up, b: presented in 1988 value, c: did not include intangible costs and productivity losses in non- labour force, d: % range of % GDP in provinces, e: % of Ontario GDP, f: net cost and gross cost, g; presented in terms of lower bound and upper bound, h: in gross cost estimation, i: measured in terms of Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) loss, +: as quoted in the original study.