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Table 3 Program and recruitment characteristics

From: Selective prevention programs for children from substance-affected families: a comprehensive systematic review

  Study Name of intervention Target group and focus of intervention Format Access to participants / recruitment
School-based Interventions
1 [65] Stress Management and Alcohol Awareness Program (SMAAP) School-based group program for 4th-, 5th- and 6th-grade students with problem-drinking parents. Focus: self-esteem, coping behaviors, alcohol expectancies, problem solving, social support. Didactics: theory, practical exercises, homework assignments, complementary “personal trainer component” 8 weekly 90-min sessions Children identified their parents’ problems after watching a relevant video. Interested children were invited to participate in the program. Parental consent was obtained.
2 [66] Friends in Need School-based group program for primary school pupils from drug-involved families. Focus: self-esteem, coping behavior, perception of emotions, group affiliation, „4 C’s” (“you didn’t cause it, you can’t control it; you can’t cure it, you can be okay.”) Didactics: theory, practical exercises, structured sessions, rituals 8 90-min sessions After a discussion group on feelings about drug use, teachers from three schools that were located in drug-involved neighborhoods identified children whom they believed to be affected by parental drug use. Parental consent was obtained.
3 [68] School-Based-Support-Groups (SBSG) School-based group program for students from grades 9 through 12. Focus: knowledge on substance abuse and its impact, family relations, coping strtegies. Didactics: theory, practical exercises, mutual support 14 weekly 60-min sessions A school-based health center and/or a high school counselor identified students reporting substance use in their family (screening question: “Does anyone in your family drink or take drugs so much that it worries you?”). Parental consent was not obtained.
4 [67] SBSG See (3), slightly different format (see format) 15 45-min sessions The program was introduced by school personnel; interested students were welcome to participate.
5 [69] Children Having Opportunities in Courage, Esteem and Success (CHOICES) School-based three-component program for 3rd- and 4th-grade students: 1. “School Support Group”: group meetings. 2. “Healthy Lifestyle Peer Mentors”: ongoing mentoring program for participants; peer mentors received training and attended group meeting. 3. private lessons / homework assistance. Focus: emotions identity and family, coping strategies. Didactics: discussions, videos, practical exercises 11 weekly 60-min sessions, weekly individual 30-min sessions with mentors A drug related video was shown, children answered two screening questions, children screened positive were interviewed by a student counselor, who assessed program eligibility. Parental consent was obtained.
6 [70] CHOICES See (5) See (5) See (5)
Community-based Interventions
7 [72] Teen-Club Group-program for female teenagers with drug-involved families and a lack of social and family support. Focus: problem solving, health education, social behavior, home visits for crisis intervention. Didactics: theory, motivational leisure activities Weekly 90-min meetings within two years Offered by a youth center with a high risk population, no accurate information regarding recruitment provided.
8 [71] Teen-Club See (7) See (7) See (7)
Family-based Interventions
9 [73] Focus on Families (FOF) Family-based program for families with methadone treated parents, sessions with groups of families (partly with children, partly without), combined with home-based case management. Focus: relapse prevention, stabilization and improvement of family management practices. Didactics: motivational elements, discussion, practical exercises, periodical buffer calls for 9 months after program end 32 biweekly 90-min sessions (12 with children) for 16 weeks Participating families were recruited at two methadone clinics in Seattle.
10 [74] FOF See (9) See (9) See (9)
11 [64] Strengthening Families Program (SFP, Utah-Version). Canadian adaption of the SFP 6–12 Year family based program, developed by Kumpfer & DeMarsh (1983) in 1982, tested with children aged 9 to 12 with at least one parent addicted to alcohol in Ontario and Buffalo, NY. Focus: Strengthening individuals as well as family structures. Didactics: theory, practical exercises, videos, session split into children’s / parent’s groups and joint family sessions 14 weekly 2-3-hour sessions Recruited from multiple alcohol treatment agencies and community agencies for high-risk families in Ontario and Buffalo.
12 [63] Family Com-petence Pro-gram (FCP). Spanish adaptation of the SFP 6–12 Years, see (11). Family-based program for parents and children (aged 6 to 14). 14 weekly 2–3 hour sessions Interested drug-using parents in the final phase of addiction treatment, and their children.
13 [75] Safe Haven Program Adaptation of the SFP (Utah version), see (11) for inner city African-American substance-using families with children aged 6 to 12. Focus: parent training, children’s and family skills training. Didactics: practical exercises, homework, theory 12 weekly sessions Parents were recruited at a residential drug and alcohol treatment center. Potential participants were interviewed twice to assess their level of interest and potential commitment. Consent of all family members was obtained.