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Table 2 Characteristics of young men in jail and one year after release, by smoking status

From: Factors associated with smoking among adolescent males prior to incarceration and after release from jail: a longitudinal study

  Prior to incarceration, N = 552 One year after release from jail, N = 397
  Smokers Non-smokers Smokers Non-smokers
  N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
  344 (62.3) 208 (37.7) 274 (69.2) 122 (30.8)
Age, mean (sd) 18.04 (0.70) 17.89 (0.75) 19.68 (0.93) 19.43 (0.93)
(Time 1 d.f. = 550; Time 2 d.f. = 391)
Black† 184 (53.6) 132 (63.5) 149 (54.4) 72 (59.5)
Latino† 140 (40.8) 66 (31.7) 109 (39.8) 41 (33.9)
Foster care history† 113 (33.0)* 34 (16.3) 87 (31.9)* 19 (15.6)
Not living with parents or legal guardian 105 (30.5)* 35 (16.8) 101 (37.4) 47 (38.8)
Unstably housed 11 (3.2) 3 (1.4) 72 (26.7) 25 (20.7)
People felt close to in past year, mean (sd) 4.96 (7.67) 4.99 (5.05) 5.59 (6.35) 5.49 (7.17)
(Time 1 d.f. = 498; Time 2 d.f. = 394)
No health insurance 32 (9.6) 14 (7.1) 67 (26.8) 20 (18.0)
Unemployed 218 (63.4) 135 (64.9) 292 (73.5) 78 (65.5)
Ever held back in school† 167 (48.7) 90 (43.3) 143 (52.2) 48 (39.3)
Not attending school regularly 242 (71.6)* 124 (60.5) 218 (80.1) 96 (78.7)
Lifetime learning disability diagnosis† 80 (23.3) 40 (19.4) 64 (23.4) 25 (20.5)
Days in past 30/90‡ smoked cigs., mean (sd) 24.99 (9.68) 0.00 (0.00) 70.79 (31.80) 0.00 (0.00)
Cigarettes smoked each day, mean (sd) 10.66 (10.75) 0.00 (0.00) 13.41 (35.47) 0.00 (0.00)
Times used alc. in wk. in 30/90‡, mean (sd) 2.72 (4.19) 2.31 (6.47) 3.97 (9.31) 5.12 (13.04)
(Time 1 d.f. = 356; Time 2 d.f. = 263)
Days in past 30/90‡ used marij., mean (sd) 23.22 (11.50) 20.30 (12.16) 50.37 (39.93) 58.13 (37.41)
(Time 1 d.f. = 419; Time 2 d.f. = 110)
Hard drug use in past 30/90‡ days 28 (8.2) 8 (3.9) 32 (11.7) 13 (10.7)
Sold drugs to get money for drugs/alcohol 181 (58.2)* 68 (45.3) 41 (15.0) 13 (10.7)
Drug/alcohol dependence in past year 85 (24.7) 38 (18.3) 54 (22.5) 10 (11.5)
Sex partners in past 3 mo., mean (sd) 4.42 (7.88)* 3.01 (3.13) 0.63 (3.37) 0.24 (0.94)
(Time 1 d.f. = 484; Time 2 d.f. = 351)
Inconsistent condom use in past 3 mo. 240 (71.6) 119 (63.0) 128 (76.6) 60 (82.2)
Gang involvement† 95 (27.6)* 38 (18.3) 76 (27.7) 22 (18.0)
Weapons possession during illegal activity 222 (69.2) 131 (66.5) 80 (29.4) 32 (26.7)
Incarcerated for drug charges† 119 (34.8)* 43 (20.7) 79 (28.9) 30 (24.6)
Incarcerated for violent charges† 100 (29.2)* 104 (50.0) 93 (34.1) 59 (48.4)
Prior arrests, mean (sd)† 5.79 (6.24)* 4.29 (4.97) 5.79 (6.38)* 4.29 (4.39)
(Time 1 d.f. = 546; Time 2 d.f. = 328)
Arrests after release from jail, mean (sd) -- -- 1.51 (1.59) 1.24 (1.57)
(Time 2 d.f. = 389)
Went back to jail after index incarceration -- -- 138 (51.1)* 46 (37.7)
Received REAL MEN intervention -- -- 138 (50.4) 58 (47.5)
  1. *p ≤ 0.01 for comparison of smokers vs. non-smokers, Pearson’s Chi-Square Test (d.f. = 1). For variable “unstably housed” prior to incarceration, Fisher’s Exact Test, p = 0.75. For continuous variables where means and standard deviations were reported, Independent Samples T-Tests were performed. Degrees of freedom are notated in column 1 with each variable for all continuous variables.
  2. † Measured only at Time 1 interview.
  3. ‡ Refers to past 30 days prior to incarceration, and past 90 days after release from jail.