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Table 1 Baseline and follow-up meaning in life scores [M(SD)] stratified by smoking status

From: Four-year prospective evaluation of the relationship between meaning in life and smoking status

  Baseline meaning in life scores Follow-up meaning in life scores
Stable non-smokers (a) 10.21 (2.57) 10.02 (2.73)
Stable smokers (b) 9.66 (2.70) 9.54 (2.92)
Starters (c) 9.81 (2.62) 9.78 (2.85)
Quitters (d) 9.85 (2.66) 9.74 (3.05)
Kruskall-Wallis one-way analysis of ranks χ2 = 35.11 χ2 = 19.61
   df = 3 df = 3
   p < 0.001 p < 0.001
Multiple pairwise comparisons with Mann–Whitney test a vs. b U = 1236219.5; p < 0.001; r = 0.09 U = 1306015.0; p < 0.001; r = 0.07
  a vs. c U = 286889.0; p = 0.028; r = 0.04 U = 312517.5; p = 0.279; r = 0.02
  a vs. d U = 254983.5; p = 0.049; r = 0.04 U = 271433.0; p = 0.291; r = 0.02
  b vs. c U = 108765.0; p = 0.382; r = 0.02 U = 111752.0; p = 0.237; r = 0.03
  b vs. d U = 96185.0; p = 0.405; r = 0.02 U = 97662.0; p = 0.306; r = 0.03
  c vs. d U = 22362.5; p = 0.984; r < 0.01 U = 23121.0; p = 0.942; r < 0.01