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Table 1 Differences in happy hour drinking across demographic categories

From: It’s five o’clock somewhere: An examination of the association between happy hour drinking and negative consequences

Characteristics N Happy hour increases drinking Happy hour does not increase drinking χ2(df) p value
Gender  
Male 679 59.8% (460) 40.2% (273) 10.878 (1) .001
Female 674 68.4% (461) 31.6% (213)   
Race  
African American 220 65.5% (144) 34.5% (76) 1.643 (2) .440
White 1030 64.6% (665) 35.4% (365)   
Other 78 57.7% (45) 42.3% (33)   
Age  
17-20 793 77.4% (614) 22.6% (179) 149.815 (3) <.001
21-22 421 47.0% (198) 53.0% (223)   
23-25 85 40.0% (34) 60.0% (51)   
26 or older 53 39.6% (21) 60.4% (32)   
Class year  
Freshman 441 77.8% (343) 22.2% (98) 105.603 (3) <.001
Sophomore 351 72.4% (254) 27.6% (97)   
Junior 297 49.8% (148) 50.2% (149)   
Senior 243 46.5% (113) 53.5% (130)   
GPA  
3.01 – 4.0 594 65.8% (391) 34.2% (203) 13.474 (4) .009
2.01 – 3.0 534 59.9% (320) 40.1% (214)   
1.01 – 2.0 88 61.4% (54) 38.6% (34)   
0.0 – 1.0 5 100% (5) 0.0% (0)   
No GPA 134 73.9% (99) 26.1% (35)   
Student athlete      
No 1293 64.9% (454) 35.1% (31) 6.252 (1) .012
Yes 61 49.2% (839) 50.8% (30)   
Fraternity/Sorority  
No 1063 62.7% (667) 37.3% (396) 4.119 (1) .042
Yes 292 69.2% (202) 30.8% (90)   
Employed      
No 900 66.3% (597) 33.7% (303) 6.818 (2) .033
Part-time 399 60.9% (243) 39.1% (156)   
Full-time 55 52.7% (29) 47.3% (26)   
Marital status      
Single 1319 64.5% (851) 35.5% (468) 3.427 (1) .064
Married 31 48.4% (15) 51.6% (16)   
Family income  
Over $100,000 619 65.6% (406) 34.4% (213) 12.013 (4) .017
$75,000 – $99,999 216 68.5% (148) 31.5% (68)   
$50,000 – $74,999 242 65.7% (159) 34.3% (83)   
$25,000 – $49,999 155 52.9% (82) 47.1% (73)   
Under $24,999 86 59.3% (51) 40.7% (35)   
Living arrangements  
With parents/family 77 55.8% (43) 44.2% (34) 61.826 (4) <.001
Campus dormitories 405 78.8% (319) 21.2% (86)   
Greek housing 25 68.0% (17) 32.0% (8)   
Rented apartment 812 59.1% (480) 40.9% (332)   
Home owner 26 30.8% (8) 69.2% (18)   
  Mann–Whitney U (standardized) p value
Alcohol use frequency (Median) 6-9 days per month 3-5 days per month 4.713 <.001
  t-value (df) p value
Age of first alcohol use (M (SD)) 15.79 (2.08) 16.31 (2.61) 4.013 (1324) <.001