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Table 1 Program (N = 108) and client (N = 13,478) variables in addiction health services

From: Paths to improving engagement among racial and ethnic minorities in addiction health services

  Mean ± Standard Deviation or n (%) Response format
Dependent variables
 Wait time 3.36 ± 16.63 Time to enter treatment (days)
 Retention 90.46 ± 99.72 Treatment duration (days)
Independent variables
 Program capacity
  High program capacity 8 (7.4) Latent class (high leadership, readiness for change, Medi-Cal acceptance)
  Directorial leadership 40.11 ± 7.04 9 items, scale from 10 (low) to 50 (high); e.g., Your director inspires others with plans for the facility’s future; α = .96
  Readiness for change 34.53 ± 2.80 4 subscales, scale from 10 (low) to 50 (high).
Motivational readinessa: 24 items, 30.78 ± 5.68, e.g., Your program needs more training for effective implementation of EBPs; α = .80
Resources: 12 items, 37.94 ± 5.15, e.g., Clinical management decisions for your program are well planned; α = .74
Staff attributes: 8 items, 40.30 ± 4.01, e.g. You are able to adapt quickly when you have to make changes; α = .86
Organizational climate: 16 items, 34.66 ± 4.90, e.g. You feel encouraged to try new and different techniques; α = .78
  Medi-Cal acceptance 81 (75) Program accepts Medi-Cal payment
  Mental health coordination 45 (42) On-site and off-site coordination with mental health services
  Receipt of HIV testing servicesb 8,165 (74) Number of clients who received on-site and off-site HIV testing services while in the program
 Client race and ethnicity
  African American 2,731 (20) Self-identify as African American
  Latino 5,010 (37) Self-identify as Latino
  White 4,179 (31) Self-identify as White (non-Latino)
  Other 1,558 (12) Self-identify as other race or ethnicity
Control variables
 Program characteristics
  Public fundinga 34.2 ± 43.0 Percentage of public funding during previous fiscal year
  License 103 (96.3) Licensed by state
  Accreditation 16 (15.2) Accredited by the Joint Commission
 Program type
  Outpatient 60 (55.6) Primarily outpatient services
  Methadone 4 (3.7) Primarily methadone maintenance services
  Residential 36 (33.3) Primary residential services
Client characteristics
 Referral sourceb
  Self 5,780 (43) Self-referred
  Community 2,262 (17) Referred by a community organization
  Proposition 36 1,896 (14) Referred by court in lieu of incarceration
  Drug court 755 (6) Referred by drug court
  Social services 2,785 (21) Referred by social services or county agency
  Medi-Cal eligible 5,350 (40) Eligible for Medi-Cal
  Mental health issues 3,205 (24) Diagnosed with mental health issue
  Homeless 2,296 (17) Unstable housing status
  1. aMore than 8 % data missing
  2. bClient-reported characteristic