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Table 2 The behavioral change techniques contained within Breaking Free Online using the taxonomy produced by Michie et al. [5]

From: Using the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy v1 to conceptualize the clinical content of Breaking Free Online: a computer-assisted therapy program for substance use disorders

Techniques within BFO (area of LBM/program) Intervention target BCT taxonomy (number in taxonomy)
 Node-link mapping/psychoeducation (all LBM) Case formulation – understand the links between situations, thoughts, emotions, behaviors, physical sensations and lifestyle Information about antecedents (4.2); Information about health consequences (5.1); Salience of consequences (5.2); Information about social and environmental consequences (5.3); Information about emotional consequences (5.6)
 Motivational enhancement (lifestyle) Increase treatment engagement and retention. Increase readiness to change behavior Non-specific reward (10.3); Focus on past success (15.3)
 Implementation intentions (lifestyle) Situational cue to elicit behavior Action planning (1.4)
 Cognitive restructuring/mind traps (negative thoughts) Challenge thoughts that may be unhelpful and linked to situations in which substances might be used Re-attribution (4.3); Framing-reframing (13.2)
 Reward and reinforcement (achievements) Encourage new behavior and continuation of this behavior via positive feedback Non-specific reward (10.3); Non-specific incentive (10.6); Reward approximation (14.4); Rewarding completion (14.5);
 Refusal and assertiveness skills (difficult situations) Relapse prevention for coping with environmental/situational/emotional triggers Problem solving (1.2); Action planning (1.4); Instruction on how to perform a behavior (4.1); Behavioral practice/rehearsal (8.1); Behavior substitution (8.2); Avoidance/reducing exposure to cues for the behavior (12.3)
 Harm reduction (information on alcohol and drugs) Reduce negative or fatal consequences of substance using behaviors Information about health consequences (5.1); Salience of consequences (5.2); Behavior substitution (8.2); Habit reversal (8.4)
 Activity scheduling (unhelpful behaviors) Increase activity to increase energy levels and relieve boredom Goal setting (behavior) (1.1); Action planning (1.4)
 Self-monitoring (progress check) Monitor behavior to provide feedback about progress towards goals Self-monitoring of behavior (2.3); Feedback on outcome(s) of behavior (2.7)
 Emotional regulation (understanding your emotions) Recognize/understand/normalize emotions Information about emotional consequences (5.6); Behavioral practice/rehearsal (8.1); Reduce negative emotions (11.2)
 Coping strategy enhancement (understanding your emotions) Developing more appropriate coping strategies Problem solving (1.2); Social support (unspecified) (3.1); Behavioral practice/rehearsal (8.1); Distraction (12.4)
 Relapse prevention (understanding your difficult situations) Creating action plans on how to avoid or cope in high risk situations Goal setting (behavior) (1.1); Problem solving (1.2); Action planning (1.4)
 Crisis management (understanding your difficult situations) Intervention to help people in distress access support Social support (unspecified) (3.1); Reduce negative emotions (11.2)
 Goal setting (lifestyle) Creating SMART goals for recovery Goal setting (behavior) (1.1); Problem solving (1.2); Goal setting (outcome) (1.3); Action planning (1.4)
 Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (understanding your emotions) Relapse prevention based techniques Instruction on how to perform a behavior (4.1); Behavioral practice/rehearsal (8.1); Reduce negative emotions (11.2)