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Table 2 Comparison of prevalence of binge drinking in different characteristics among male and female university students in nine ASEAN countries

From: Health and behavioral factors associated with binge drinking among university students in nine ASEAN countries

Variables Male (n = 3324) Female (n = 5482)
Number (%) OR (95% CI) Number (%) OR (95% CI)
Socio-demographic characteristics
Age groups
 18–19 107 (12.9) Reference 242 (11.6) Reference
 20–21 291 (22.5) 1.95 (1.53–2.49)*** 409 (19.4) 1.83 (1.54–2.17)***
 22 or older 413 (34.3) 3.52 (2.78–4.45)*** 230 (17.8) 1.64 (1.35–2.00)***
Living situation
 Not with parents/guardians 412 (24.5) Reference 642 (19.7) Reference
 With parents/guardians 296 (31.3) 0.71 (0.60–0.85)*** 229 (14.8) 1.41 (1.20–1.67)***
Family economic status
 Not well off/poor 502 (25.4) Reference 639 (18.3) Reference
 Wealthy/quite well off 309 (23.0) 0.88 (0.75–1.04) 242 (12.2) 0.62 (0.53–0.73)***
Country category
 Upper-middle/high income 358 (28.4) Reference 570 (24.7) Reference
 Lower-middle income 453 (22.0) 0.71 (0.60–0.83)*** 311 (9.8) 0.33 (0.29–0.39)***
Level of involvement in organized religious activity
 Low 258 (30.9) Reference 146 (16.7) Reference
 Medium 317 (34.2) 1.16 (0.95–1.42) 600 (24.1) 1.58 (1.30–1.93)***
 High 130 (15.2) 0.40 (0.32–0.51)*** 122 (8.5) 0.47 (0.36–0.60)***
Level of involvement in non-organized religious activity
 Low 489 (33.3) Reference 465 (22.9) Reference
 Medium 127 (29.1) 0.82 (0.65–1.04) 285 (24.7) 1.11 (0.93–1.31)
 High 89 (12.4) 0.28 (0.22–0.36)*** 116 (7.2) 0.26 (0.21–0.32)***
Health knowledge and beliefs
 Knowledge of alcohol-heart disease relationship 327 (22.8) 0.63 (0.53–0.74)*** 375 (14.9) 0.62 (0.54–0.72)***
 Knowledge of alcohol-high blood pressure relationship 407 (26.1) 0.88 (0.73–1.04) 555 (19.5) 1.24 (1.06–1.44)**
 Weak beliefs in importance of limiting alcohol use 7.4 (2.7) 0.85 (0.82–0.87)*** 7.8 (2.5) 0.82 (0.80–0.85)***
 Subjective health status (range 1–5) 2.9 (1.0) 0.88 (0.82–0.95)** 3.1 (0.9) 1.05 (0.96–1.14)
Level of life satisfaction
 Low 421 (37.3) Reference 526 (24.1) Reference
 Medium 236 (20.2) 0.43 (0.35–0.51)*** 238 (12.1) 0.44 (0.37–0.52)***
 High 50 (14.9) 0.30 (0.21–0.41)*** 105 (16.1) 0.60 (0.48–0.76)***
Current tobacco use 118 (51.1) 3.65 (2.78–4.79)*** 62 (47.7) 5.21 (3.67–7.42)***
Past year illicit drug use 189 (42.2) 3.19 (2.58–3.95)*** 206 (23.1) 2.37 (1.97–2.86)***
Depressive symptoms 91 (28.5) 1.14 (1.08–1.68)* 105 (19.8) 1.76 (1.34–2.33)***
Physical activity
 Low 313 (22.6) Reference 461 (15.6) Reference
 Medium 241 (20.9) 0.91 (0.75–1.10) 254 (14.4) 0.91 (0.77–1.07)
 High 247 (32.5) 1.65 (1.35–2.01)*** 147 (21.5) 1.49 (1.21–1.83)***
  1. Abbreviation: ASEAN association of Southeast Asian Nations, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio
  2. Note: Values are number (%) for categorical variables and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables
  3. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001