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Table 1 Rates of pain in samples using prescription opioids (POs) non-medically

From: Chronic pain and opioid misuse: a review of reviews

Author Population Number of studies Rate calculated Estimate
Fischer et al. (2012) General population samples of young adults or adults reporting non-medical PO use 4 Pooled prevalence of pain 48% (95% CI: 37%–59%)
Lusted et al. (2013) Adult substance use treatment samples reporting non-medical PO use 8 Pooled prevalence of pain 58% (95% CI: 53%–64%)
Adult substance use treatment samples with PO analgesics reported as the primary drug requiring substance use treatment, or PO dependence reported 7 Pooled prevalence of pain 60% (95% CI: 52%–67%)
Adult substance use treatment samples with any PO abuse reported 2 Pooled prevalence of pain 50% (95% CI: 40%–60%)