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Table 3 External Protective Factors Studied

From: Is there room for resilience? A scoping review and critique of substance use literature and its utilization of the concept of resilience

STUDY Family Level School Level Community Level OTHER
Parental supervision & monitoring Family management (setting boundaries, appropriate consequences) Family support (trust, adaptability, cohesion) Family bonding (closeness, communication, cultural ties) Supportive relationships with partner Positive school environment (supportive relationships with teachers) School engagement (commitment, sense of belonging, extra- curricular activities) Positive peer connections Community engagement (commitment, sense of belonging, caregiving) Supportive relationships with friends Supportive relationships with community members (neighbour, case worker) Participation in religious/ spiritual activities Formal Supports (drop-in programs, treatment, work, housing, etc.,)  
Amandru et al., 2014 [104]          
Andreas et al., 2016 [123]            
Barbieri et al., 2016 [146]             Positive work environment; social support at work
Becerra & Castillo 2011 [157]            
Benda et al., 2003 [126]         
Benda et al., 2005 [173]           
Bowland 2015 [79]           
Bradshaw et al., 2013 [148]              
Brothers 2016 [87]            
Buttram et al., 2014a [122]         
Carrico et al., 2016 [172]              
Chang et al., 2003 [81]             
Christiansen & Evans 2005 [124]        
Currie et al., 2013 [118]               Enculturation: Aboriginal cultural participation
Daining & DePanfilis 2007 [107]           
Davis & Spillman 2011 [82]         
Draper et al., 2015 [158]            
Dufour & Nadeau 2001 [149]             
Eisen et al., 2014 [86]          
Gilliard-Matthews et al., 2016 [121]             Neighbourhood safety
Griffin et al., 2009 [129]             
Hammersley et al., 2015 [108]            
Hills et al., 2016 [78]             
Hopwood & Treolar 2008 [114]           
Javdani & Allen 2016 [169]            
Jones 2012 [76]          
Kassis et al., 2013 [125]            
Kidd & Shahar 2008 [182]             
LaFromboise et al., 2006 [85]            Enculturation; neighbourhood safety
Levey et al., 2016 [168]             
Luthar & Barkin 2012 [135]            
Markson et al., 2015 [174]           
Marsiglia et al., 2002 [119]          
McKnight & Loper 2002 [150]           
Morse et al., 2015 [181]              Visiting new places
Moon et al., 2000 [130]             Neighbourhood safety
O’Donnell et al., 2002 [110]         
Okamoto et al., 2009 [151]             
Ostaszewski & Zimmerman 2006 [152]          
Pardini et al., 2000 [180]          
Patwary et al., 2012 [136]              
Pearce et al., 2015 [171]             Enculturation
Perkins & Jones 2004 [153]        
Rosenblum et al., 2005 [117]             Neighbourhood safety
Shpiegel 2015 [77]            
Sirikantraporn et al., 2012 [183]              
Stajduhar et al., 2009 [115]          
Sutherland et al., 2009 [179]          
Tiet et al., 2010 [120]         
Tomita 2013 [83]             
Tozer et al., 2015 [116]           Drug use by family & friends; stigma & group norms; responsibilities for others; fear of losing family/friends; enculturation
Turner et al., 2007 [154]           
Tyler et al., 2014 [111]              
Waller et al., 2003 [155]             
Wong 2008 [215]            
Yates & Grey 2012 [80]