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Table 3 Results of the multinomial logistic regression for sociodemographic characteristics (n = 4238)

From: Licit and illicit substance use patterns among university students in Germany using cluster analysis

  n (%) 4238 (100%) Cluster 2: ‘Drinkers Only’ (n = 2053) Cluster 3: ‘Drinkers and Cigarette Smokers’ (n = 621) Cluster 4: ‘Cannabis and Licit Substance Users’ (n = 469) Cluster 5: ‘Hookah Users with Co-Use’ (n = 418) Cluster 6: ‘Illicit Substance Use with Co-Use’ (n = 226)
Gender
 Male 1753 (41.4) 0.91 (0.72–1.15) 1.28 (0.98–1.68) 2.66 (1.99–3.56)*** 2.05 (1.52–2.76)*** 2.09 (1.47–2.99)***
 Female 2485 (58.6) ref ref ref ref ref
Age
  < 23 years 1792 (42.3) 1.29 (0.89–1.87) 0.46 (0.30–0.70)** 1.06 (0.64–1.76) 7.07 (3.34–14.96)*** 0.71 (0.39–1.29)
 23 to 27 years 1933 (45.6) 1.49 (1.08–2.04)* 1.00 (0.70–1.43) 1.52 (0.98–2.35) 4.96 (2.45–10.05)*** 0.97 (0.58–1.64)
  > 27 years 513 (12.1) ref ref ref ref ref
Immigrant background
 Immigrant background 368 (8.7) 0.50 (0.37–0.70)*** 0.59 (0.39–0.88)* 0.83 (0.54–1.27) 0.67 (0.42–1.05) 1.01 (0.61–1.68)
 No immigrant background 3870 (91.3) ref ref ref ref ref
Religious affiliation
 Religious affiliation 2164 (51.1) 1.41 (1.14–1.74)*** 0.98 (0.77–1.26) 0.85 (0.65–1.12) 1.12 (0.85–1.48) 0.71 (0.51–1.00)
 No religious affiliation 2074 (48.9) ref ref ref ref ref
Living situation
 With other students 1759 (41.5) 2.28 (1.66–3.12)*** 3.04 (2.03–4.57)*** 5.32 (3.44–8.24)*** 3.39 (2.25–5.11)*** 4.88 (2.86–8.34)***
 Alone or with partner 1929 (45.5) 1.37 (1.02–1.82)* 1.72 (1.18–2.53)* 1.29 (0.84–2.00) 1.18 (0.78–1.76) 1.30 (0.75–2.24)
 With parents 550 (13.0) ref ref ref ref ref
Years of university
 1st year undergraduate 868 (20.5) 0.67 (0.45–0.98)* 1.32 (0.84–2.07) 0.97(0.58–1.59) 1.05 (0.61–1.78) 1.43 (0.79–2.59)
 2nd year undergraduate 825 (19.5) 0.84 (0.57–1.23) 1.24 (0.79–1.96) 0.99 (0.60–1.63) 1.02 (0.60–1.74) 1.22 (0.67–2.22)
 3rd year undergraduate 704 (16.6) 0.67 (0.46–0.97)* 1.04 (0.68–1.60) 0.93 (0.58–1.48) 0.87 (0.51–1.46) 0.88 (0.49–1.58)
 4th year undergraduate 419 (9.9) 0.64 (0.42–0.97)* 1.00 (0.62–1.62) 1.03 (0.61–1.72) 1.20 (0.68–2.10) 1.14 (0.61–2.14)
 5th year or more undergraduate 507 (12.0) 0.62 (0.43–0.90)* 0.83 (0.54–1.28) 0.80 (0.49–1.30) 0.90 (0.52–1.57) 0.59 (0.31–1.13)
 Graduate 915 (21.6) ref ref ref ref ref
Subject of study
 Humanities 280 (6.6) 1.18 (0.71–1.95) 1.87 (1.08–3.24)* 1.23 (0.68–2.22) 1.33 (0.71–2.51) 1.36 (0.65–2.84)
 Health Care, Medicine, Sport 725 (17.1) 1.38 (0.99–1.92) 0.89 (0.60–1.31) 0.61 (0.39–0.96)* 0.91 (0.57–1.44) 0.60 (0.33–1.10)
 Natural Science 832 (19.6) 1.09 (0.80–1.50) 0.50 (0.33–0.74)** 0.56 (0.37–0.84)** 0.69 (0.45–1.06) 0.77 (0.46–1.28)
 Economics or Law 456 (10.8) 1.32 (0.88–1.97) 1.31 (0.83–2.08) 0.63 (0.37–1.07) 1.34 (0.81–2.23) 1.10 (0.59–2.04)
 Engineering 588 (13.9) 1.32 (0.89–1.94) 0.81 (0.51–1.28) 0.66 (0.41–1.06) 1.23 (0.76–1.99) 1.30 (0.75–2.26)
 Linguistics, Cultural Sciences 452 (10.7) 1.12 (0.76–1.64) 1.08 (0.70–1.69) 0.99 (0.61–1.60) 0.95 (0.56–1.60) 1.15 (0.62–2.10)
 Social or Educational Science 905 (21.4) ref ref ref ref ref
  1. cases with missing values were excluded from the analysis
  2. percentages are based on valid cases
  3. odds ratio (95%-confidence interval); *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001
  4. ref.: reference category (view Table 1)
  5. reference category: Cluster 1 (‘Alcohol Abstainers’ n = 460)
  6. model fit: Likelihood-Ratio Test: χ2 = 689.84; df = 90; McFadden Pseudo R2 = 0.054