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Table 1 Baseline characteristics stratified by having had recently experienced barriers to accessing health services among people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada (N = 1529)

From: Major depressive disorder and access to health services among people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada

  Total n = 1529, N (%) Barriers to accessing health services in the last six months p – value
Yes n = 415, N (%) No n = 1099, N (%)
Characteristic
 CES-D total score
   ≥ 16 956 (62.5) 297 (71.6) 650 (59.1) < 0.001
   <  16 459 (30) 89 (21.4) 364 (33.1)  
 Agea
  median 43.0 42.4 43.1 0.119
  IQR (36.2–48.6) (35.0–47.8) (36.6–49.0)  
 Gender
  male 1008 (65.9) 258 (62.2) 739 (67.2) 0.063
  female 521 (34.1) 157 (37.8) 360 (32.8)  
 Caucasian ethnicity     
  yes 878 (57.4) 248 (59.8) 624 (56.8) 0.295
  no 651 (42.6) 167 (40.2) 475 (43.2)  
 Calendar year
  median 2007 2007 2007 0.776
  IQR (2006–2009) (2006–2009) (2006–2009)  
 HIV serostatus     
  positive 600 (39.2) 147 (35.4) 445 (40.5) 0.071
  negative 929 (60.8) 268 (64.6) 654 (59.5)  
 Homelessnessb
  yes 481 (31.5) 164 (39.5) 311 (28.3) < 0.001
  no 1041 (68.1) 246 (59.3) 786 (71.5)  
 Any injection drug useb
  yes 1282 (83.8) 378 (91.1) 891 (81.1) < 0.001
  no 244 (16) 37 (8.9) 206 (18.7)  
 Daily heroin useb
  yes 346 (22.6) 107 (25.8) 234 (21.3) 0.066
  no 1179 (77.1) 308 (74.2) 862 (78.4)  
 Daily cocaine useb
  yes 130 (8.5) 49 (11.8) 81 (7.4) 0.006
  no 1393 (91.1) 365 (88.0) 1014 (92.3)  
 Daily crystal methamphetamine useb
  yes 74 (4.8) 28 (6.7) 44 (4.0) 0.026
  no 1450 (94.8) 387 (93.3) 1051 (95.6)  
 Daily prescription opioid useb
  yes 97 (6.3) 39 (9.4) 58 (5.3) 0.004
  no 1429 (93.5) 376 (90.6) 1039 (94.5)  
 Incarcerationb
  yes 228 (14.9) 72 (17.3) 153 (13.9) 0.084
  no 1298 (84.9) 340 (81.9) 946 (86.1)  
 Enrollment in opioid agonist therapyb
  yes 667 (43.6) 181 (43.6) 481 (43.8) 0.994
  no 858 (56.1) 232 (55.9) 616 (56.1)  
 Hospitalizedb
  yes 302 (19.8) 91 (21.9) 208 (18.9) 0.191
  no 1227 (80.2) 324 (78.1) 891 (81.1)  
 Sex workb
  yes 222 (14.5) 71 (17.1) 148 (13.5) 0.064
  no 1300 (85.0) 340 (81.9) 948 (86.3)  
 Stable employmentb
  yes 371 (24.3) 94 (22.7) 275 (25.0) 0.338
  no 1158 (75.7) 321 (77.3) 824 (75.0)  
 History of childhood physical abuse
  yes 1061 (69.4) 296 (71.3) 757 (68.9) 0.076
  no 410 (26.8) 95 (22.9) 309 (28.1)  
 History of childhood sexual abuse     
  yes 655 (42.8) 207 (49.9) 444 (40.4) < 0.001
  no 824 (53.9) 192 (46.3) 621 (56.5)  
 Victim of violenceb
  yes 324 (21.2) 125 (30.1) 195 (17.7) < 0.001
  no 1200 (78.5) 288 (69.4) 901 (82.0)  
  1. aPer 10-year increase
  2. bActivities reported in the six months prior to interview