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Table 2 Multiple logistic regression model to determine the relationship between CES-D score and barriers to accessing health services among people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada (n = 1529)

From: Major depressive disorder and access to health services among people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada

  Unadjusted Adjusted
Characteristic Odds ratio (95% CI) p - value Odds ratio (95% CI) p - value
CES-D total scorea
 (≥ 16 vs. < 16) 1.63 (1.23–2.18) 0.001 1.40 (1.03–1.92) 0.035
Age
 (per 10-year increase) 0.81 (0.70–0.93) 0.002 0.88 (0.76–1.02) 0.096
Gender
 (male vs. female) 0.85 (0.66–1.10) 0.214 0.99 (0.74–1.31) 0.927
Caucasian ethnicity
 (yes vs. no) 1.02 (0.80–1.31) 0.869   
Calendar year
 (per 1-year increase) 0.99 (0.94–1.03) 0.564   
HIV serostatus
 (positive vs. negative) 0.82 (0.64–1.06) 0.139   
Homelessnessb     
 (yes vs. no) 1.31 (1.00–1.72) 0.049 1.11 (0.83–1.49) 0.467
Any injection drug useb     
 (yes vs. no) 1.37 (1.03–1.84) 0.032 1.21 (0.89–1.65) 0.224
Daily heroin useb     
 (yes vs. no) 1.13 (0.84–1.52) 0.419   
Daily cocaine useb
 (yes vs. no) 0.87 (0.53–1.35) 0.543   
Daily crystal methamphetamine useb
 (yes vs. no) 1.80 (1.05–3.01) 0.027   
Daily prescription opioid useb
 (yes vs. no) 1.44 (0.87–2.32) 0.140   
Incarcerationb
 (yes vs. no) 1.72 (1.22–2.41) 0.002   
Enrollment in opioid agonist therapyb
 (yes vs. no) 0.92 (0.72–1.18) 0.511   
Hospitalizedb
 (yes vs. no) 1.67 (1.22–2.27) 0.001   
Sex workb     
 (yes vs. no) 1.08 (0.74–1.54) 0.689   
Stable employmentb
 (yes vs. no) 0.81 (0.59–1.10) 0.190   
History of childhood physical abuse
 (yes vs. no) 1.47 (1.09–1.99) 0.012   
History of childhood sexual abuse
 (yes vs. no) 1.44 (1.12–1.86) 0.004 1.30 (0.99–1.70) 0.060
Victim of violenceb
 (yes vs. no) 1.55 (1.16–2.07) 0.003 1.38 (1.01–1.86) 0.039
  1. CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, CI Confidence Interval
  2. aCES-D variable is lagged
  3. bActivities reported in the six months prior to interview