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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included

From: Effects of behavioural activation on substance use and depression: a systematic review

Author year Study type Setting and Country Substance Aim Inclusion criteria Sample characteristics
Daughters et al. (2018) [49] RCT Substance use residential treatment setting, USA Alcohol/other drugs To compare outcomes for a BA group treatment for substance use (LETS ACT) versus a time and group size-matched control condition delivered in a residential treatment setting. Patients at the residential substance use treatment facility: (1) court-mandated to attend the program by the criminal justice system or (2) entered treatment voluntarily and received public funding. N = 263 (female 29.5%, mean age 42.7; SD = 11.8) African American 95.4%
Gonzalez-Roz et al. (2018) [50] RCT Clinical Unit of Addictive Behaviours of the University of Oviedo, Spain Tobacco To analyze if adding a CM component to CBT and BA would increase smoking cessation treatment adherence and decrease depressive symptoms (1) Age ≥ 18; (2) smoking ≥10 cigarettes per day within the last year; (3) meeting criteria for current unipolar major depression disorder (meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria or BDI score ≥ 14); and (4) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for nicotine dependence. N = 74 (females 82.4%)
Busch et al. (2017) [43] RCT Inpatient cardiac units at The Miriam and Rhode Island Hospitals. Providence, RI, USA Tobacco To compare BAT-CS to a Standard-of-Care control on smoking abstinence, mood, and stress related variables. (1) ACS diagnosis documented in medical record; (2) smoking ≥3 cigarettes/day prior to hospitalization; (3) age 18–75; (4) English fluency; (5) telephone access; (6) living within 1-h drive of admitting hospital; and (7) willingness to attempt to quit smoking at discharge. N = 59 (female 27.1%; mean age 55.6; SD = 10.2) Non-Hispanic Caucasian 89.8%; Non-Hispanic African American 5.1%; Hispanic Caucasian 3.4%; Multiracial 1.7%
Delgadillo et al. (2015) [46] RCT CDAT services Leeds, UK Alcohol/other drugs To examine the feasibility of a 12-session face-to-face BA intervention compared to a CBT-based guided self-help intervention for depression. (1) ≥1 month registered with CDAT; (2) clinically significant depression symptoms as defined by the PHQ-9; (3) mild-to-moderate symptoms of alcohol/drug dependence as defined by SDS. N = 50 (female 32.0%; mean age 37.2; SD = 6.6) White British 72.0%, other 28.0%
Mimiaga et al. (2012) [48] Before-and-after The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health. Boston, MA, USA Crystal methamphetamine To evaluate BA with integrated HIV RR counseling for crystal methamphetamine abuse (1) Age ≥ 18; (2) self-reported ≥1 episodes of unprotected anal sex with a nonmonogamous male sexual partner with concurrent use of crystal methamphetamine in the past 3 months; (3) HIV uninfected. N = 19 (male 100%; mean age 40.0; SD = 9.5) Caucasian 62.5%; racial/ethnic minorities 37.5%
MacPherson et al. (2010) [47] RCT Not reported Tobacco To examine BA as a treatment for smoking cessation and depression vs. ST. (1) Age18–65; (2) current regular smoker (≥1 year); (3) smoking ≥10 cigarettes/day; (4) BDI-II ≥10; (5) no current DSM-IV disorder assessed by the SCID-NP. N = 68 (female 48.5%) BATS: mean age 45.0 (SD = 12.20); African-American 69.7% ST: mean age 42.6 (SD = 11.5); African-American 75.8%
Carpenter et al. (2008) [45] RCT Community-based treatment programs. New York City, NY, USA Opiate To test the efficacy of BTDD vs. REL for DSM-IV depressive disorders and substance abuse. (1) Current DSM-IV major depression or dysthymic disorder; (2) stable methadone dose (no changes in prior two weeks) of ≥60 mg. N = 38 (female 42.1%) BTDD: mean age 38.8 (SD = 10.40; Caucasian 88.9% REL: mean age 41.2 (SD = 10.9); Caucasian 75.0%
Carpenter et al. (2006) [44] Before-and-after 2 community-based methadone maintenance programs. New York City, NY, USA Opiate To develop and pilot test a behavioural therapy for depression in drug dependence. DSM-IV criteria for major depression or dysthymic disorders that: (1) antedated the earliest lifetime substance abuse; (2) persisted during 6 months of abstinence in the past, or at least 1 month during methadone treatment; (3) had a stable methadone dose of ≥60 mg; and (4) consented to participate. N = 29 (female 41.3%; mean age 41.0; SD = 7.9) Caucasian 58.6%; Hispanic 27.6%; African-American 10.3%; and Asian 3.4%
  1. ACS Acute Coronary Syndrome, BA Behavioural Activation, BAT-CS Behavioural Activation Treatment for Cardiac Smokers, BDI-II Beck Depression Inventory-II, BTDD Behavioural Therapy for Depression in Drug Dependence, CBT Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment, CDAT Community Drugs and Alcohol Treatment, CM Contingence Management, DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, LETS ACT Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use, MDD Major Depression Disorder, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire, RCT Randomised Controlled Trial, REL Structured Relaxation Intervention, RR Risk Reduction, SCID-NP Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, non-patient version SDS Severity of Dependence Scale, ST Standard Treatment