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Table 3 Bivariate analysis of relapse among patients with substance use disorders (N = 391)

From: Determinants and prevalence of relapse among patients with substance use disorders: case of Icyizere Psychotherapeutic Centre

Characteristics Relapse Odds ratio  
  Yes No Total OR 95 % CI p-value
Age of the respondents       0.6
  18–30 130 82 212 Ref.   .
  31–40 52 36 88 1.1 (0.6–1.8)  
  41–50 35 22 57 0.9 (0.5–1.8)  
  51–81 17 17 34 1.5 (0.7–3.2)  
Sex       0.9
  Female 37 25 62 Ref.   
  Male 197 132 329 0.9 (0.5–1.7)  
Marital Status       0.7
  Married/Cohabiting 41 29 70 Ref.   
  Single 184 124 308 0.9 (0.5–1.6)  
  Separated/Widow/Divorced 9 4 13 0.6 (0.17–2.2)  
Level of education       0.1
  Less than secondary 11 10 21 Ref.   
  Secondary level 117 92 209 0.8 (0.3–2.1)  
  University level 106 55 161 0.5 (0.2–1.4)  
Occupation       0.8
  No occupation/agriculture work 60 44 104 Ref.   
  Professional 44 31 75 0.9 (0.5–1.7)  
  Sales services/ domestic work 15 12 27 1.1 (0.4–2.5)  
  Student 115 70 185 0.8 (0.5–1.3)  
Religion       0.2
  Catholic 146 86 232 Ref.   
  Protestant/Adventist 77 62 139 1.3 (0.8–2.1)  
  Muslim 7 3 10 0.7 (0.1–2.8)  
  No Religion 4 6 10 2.5 (0.6–9.2)  
Residence       0.3
  City of Kigali 186 119 305 Ref.   
  Eastern Province 14 12 26 1.3 (0.5 2.9)  
  Northern Province 5 1 6 0.3 (0.03–2.7)  
  Southern Province 17 9 26 0.8 (0.3–1.9)  
  Western Province 4 4 8 1.5 (0.3–6.3)  
  Foreigners 8 12 20 2.3 (0.9–5.9)  
Parental status       0.01**
  All alive 129 78 207 Ref.   
  No Parents 59 32 91 0.8 (0.5–1.4)  
  Only mother alive 37 39 76 1.7 (1.02–2.9)  
  Only father alive 9 8 17 1.4 (0.5–3.9)  
Hospitalization time       0.01**
  Between three and twelve months 1 6 7 Ref.   
  Between one and three months 233 151 384 9.2 (1.1–77.6)  
Number different substances used       0.008**
  One substance 73 62 135 Ref.   
  Two/three substances 141 71 212 0.5 (0.3–0.9)  
  Four substances and above 20 24 44 1.4 (0.7–2.7)  
Peer group pressure       < 0.001*
  No 31 43 74 Ref.   
  Yes 203 114 317 0.4 (0.2–0.6)  
Accessibility       0.07
  No 62 55 117 Ref.   
  Yes 172 102 274 0.6 (0.4–1.03)  
Type of accessibility       0.03**
  None 62 55 117 Ref.   
  Geographical/financial accessibility 136 79 215 0.6 (0.4–1.03)  
  Geographical accessibility 35 18 53 0.5 (0.2–1.1)  
  Financial accessibility 1 5 6 5.6 (0.6–49.7)  
Stressful influence       < 0.001*
  No 28 66 94 Ref.   
  Yes 206 91 297 0.1 (0.1–0.3)  
Social problems (stress)       < 0.001*
  None 28 66 94 Ref.   
  Poverty 30 22 52 0.3 (0.1–0.6)  
  Family conflict 124 29 153 2.1 (1.1–7.1)  
  Inoccupation 48 33 81 0.2 (0.1–0.5)  
  Others 4 7 11 0.7 (0.2–2.7)  
Psychiatric illness       0.3
  No 191 131 322 Ref.   
  Yes 43 26 69 0.9 (0.5–1.6)  
Medical condition       0.8
  No 226 151 377 Ref.   
  Yes 8 6 14 1.1 (0.3–3.3)  
Type of medical condition       0.9
  None 226 151 377 Ref.   
  Chronic diseases 6 5 11 1.2 (0.3–4.1)  
  Acute diseases 2 1 3 0.7 (0.1–8.3)  
  1. This table indicates a bivariate logistic regression analyses for determining the association between relapse and socio-demographic characteristics and medical factors collected from the medical files of the admitted patients at Icyizere Rehabilitation Centre. The confidence intervals (95 %) were computed. Thus, statistically significant results when using odds ratio corrected p-values at 0.05 and 0.01.
  2. (*) indicates significant level at 1 % and (**) at 5 %; Ref: Reference group or comparable group; OR: Odds ratio